As the System Requirements outlined, you really do need .NET Framework 4.6.2 (or higher) for Galileo to operate. If you are a getting an error like the one shown in the picture below you should make sure that you have updated your framework installation. Typically, this issue arises from older Windows installations that have not been maintained in a while.
The Problem Event Name shown in the dialogue indicates an error of CLR20r3. While generic, it stil reveals that the Galileo has attempted to run using the Common Language Runtime 2.0. This will cause cascading failures as the glue inside of the .NET Framework has changed significantly since that version.